Factory/Warehouse Ventilation and Smoke Control
CFD Simulations

Factory And Warehouse CFD Simulations
Fires in large buildings like for example a factory or a warehouse, is very different from a fire at home.

At home, if a fire started in the lounge, you would close all the doors and windows and leave the room. Generally, this would cause the fire to become suffocated and extinguish itself.

In a large industrial building, the amount of oxygen available in the volume and the amount of natural leakage will mean that this would not be effective. The fire cannot be sealed off.

In the early stages, smoke from the fire will quickly rise into the roof space. The smoke can move at velocities of 5m/s. An average person will walk at 1-2m/s and run at 7.5m/s. Once the building roof space is full, the smoke will start to build down. The rate at which this occurs varies significantly with the nature of the combustibles and building geometry.

In an unventilated situation, a building with a volume of 10.000 m³ can become smoke logged in less than 180 seconds. The smoke produced is made up mainly of entrained air but can contain sufficient toxic substances and asphyxiates to kill within seconds.

The purpose of smoke control is simple. By releasing the heat and smoke produced by a fire from the building, the level of damage to the building and its contents are minimised, thereby automatically protecting stock or machinery as well as the building itself. The buildings occupants can escape more easily as the smoke is kept above their heads and the Fire Service can enter and fight the fire quickly and effectively as the seat of the fire is visible.

With our CFD simulations you can view how smoke fills the single storey large building and the smoke extraction after the smoke extract system operates. It gives you the confirmation of the designed smoke control system for the factory or warehouse. The simulation is time-dependent and you can see growth of the fire and smoke second by second.


Smoke control might be more vital than the comfort ventilation but ventilation in factories and warehouses are an important factor for humans and products that have been manufactured or stored in the building.

Ventilation of these large buildings might be due to an uncomfortable and perpetual high temperature in the production area that disturbs the people who works in there. Or it may be necessity for a product group. Whatever the reason, the important thing is that ventilation system should work in accordance with the smoke control and sprinkler systems. And ventilation system should not jeopardize these systems.

With our CFD simulations it is possible to see the effects of designed ventilation system on the problem, does it distribute the concentrated temperature at the production area equally across the factory and help maintain a comfortable workplace? Or does it capable of maintaining the products at a certain temperature?